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QuerySetProxy

When access directly the related ManyToMany field as well as ReverseForeignKey returns the list of related models.

But at the same time it exposes subset of QuerySet API, so you can filter, create, select related etc related models directly from parent model.

Note

By default exposed QuerySet is already filtered to return only Models related to parent Model.

So if you issue post.categories.all() you will get all categories related to that post, not all in table.

Note

Note that when accessing QuerySet API methods through QuerysetProxy you don't need to use objects attribute like in normal queries.

So note that it's post.categories.all() and not post.categories.objects.all().

To learn more about available QuerySet methods visit queries

Warning

Querying related models from ManyToMany cleans list of related models loaded on parent model:

Example: post.categories.first() will set post.categories to list of 1 related model -> the one returned by first()

Example 2: if post has 4 categories so len(post.categories) == 4 calling post.categories.limit(2).all() -> will load only 2 children and now assert len(post.categories) == 2

This happens for all QuerysetProxy methods returning data: get, all and first and in get_or_create if model already exists.

Note that value returned by create or created in get_or_create and update_or_create if model does not exist will be added to relation list (not clearing it).

Read data from database

get

get(**kwargs): -> Model

To grab just one of related models filtered by name you can use get(**kwargs) method.

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# grab one category
assert news == await post.categories.get(name="News")

# note that method returns the category so you can grab this value
# but it also modifies list of related models in place
# so regardless of what was previously loaded on parent model
# now it has only one value -> just loaded with get() call
assert len(post.categories) == 1
assert post.categories[0] == news

Tip

Read more in queries documentation get

get_or_create

get_or_create(**kwargs) -> Model

Tries to get a row meeting the criteria and if NoMatch exception is raised it creates a new one with given kwargs.

Tip

Read more in queries documentation get_or_create

all

all(**kwargs) -> List[Optional["Model"]]

To get a list of related models use all() method.

Note that you can filter the queryset, select related, exclude fields etc. like in normal query.

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# with all Queryset methods - filtering, selecting columns, counting etc.
await news.posts.filter(title__contains="M2M").all()
await Category.objects.filter(posts__author=guido).get()

# columns models of many to many relation can be prefetched
news_posts = await news.posts.select_related("author").all()
assert news_posts[0].author == guido

Tip

Read more in queries documentation all

Insert/ update data into database

create

create(**kwargs): -> Model

Create related Model directly from parent Model.

The link table is automatically populated, as well as relation ids in the database.

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# Creating columns object from instance:
await post.categories.create(name="Tips")
assert len(await post.categories.all()) == 2
# newly created instance already have relation persisted in the database

Tip

Read more in queries documentation create

For ManyToMany relations there is an additional functionality of passing parameters that will be used to create a through model if you declared additional fields on explicitly provided Through model.

Given sample like this:

```Python hl_lines="14-20, 29" class BaseMeta(ormar.ModelMeta): database = database metadata = metadata

class Category(ormar.Model): class Meta(BaseMeta): tablename = "categories"

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id = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
name = ormar.String(max_length=40)

class PostCategory(ormar.Model): class Meta(BaseMeta): tablename = "posts_x_categories"

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id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
sort_order: int = ormar.Integer(nullable=True)
param_name: str = ormar.String(default="Name", max_length=200)

class Post(ormar.Model): class Meta(BaseMeta): pass

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id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
title: str = ormar.String(max_length=200)
categories = ormar.ManyToMany(Category, through=PostCategory)

You can populate fields on through model in the `create()` call in a following way:python post = await Post(title="Test post").save() await post.categories.create( name="Test category1", # in arguments pass a dictionary with name of the through field and keys # corresponding to through model fields postcategory={"sort_order": 1, "param_name": "volume"}, ) ```

get_or_create

get_or_create(**kwargs) -> Model

Tries to get a row meeting the criteria and if NoMatch exception is raised it creates a new one with given kwargs.

Tip

Read more in queries documentation get_or_create

update_or_create

update_or_create(**kwargs) -> Model

Updates the model, or in case there is no match in database creates a new one.

Tip

Read more in queries documentation update_or_create

update

update(**kwargs, each:bool = False) -> int

Updates the related model with provided keyword arguments, return number of updated rows.

Tip

Read more in queries documentation update

Note that for ManyToMany relations update can also accept an argument with through field name and a dictionary of fields.

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class BaseMeta(ormar.ModelMeta):
    database = database
    metadata = metadata


class Category(ormar.Model):
    class Meta(BaseMeta):
        tablename = "categories"

    id = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name = ormar.String(max_length=40)


class PostCategory(ormar.Model):
    class Meta(BaseMeta):
        tablename = "posts_x_categories"

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    sort_order: int = ormar.Integer(nullable=True)
    param_name: str = ormar.String(default="Name", max_length=200)


class Post(ormar.Model):
    class Meta(BaseMeta):
        pass

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    title: str = ormar.String(max_length=200)
    categories = ormar.ManyToMany(Category, through=PostCategory)

In example above you can update attributes of postcategory in a following call:

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await post.categories.filter(name="Test category3").update(
            postcategory={"sort_order": 4}
        )

Filtering and sorting

filter

filter(*args, **kwargs) -> QuerySet

Allows you to filter by any Model attribute/field as well as to fetch instances, with a filter across an FK relationship.

Tip

Read more in queries documentation filter

exclude

exclude(*args, **kwargs) -> QuerySet

Works exactly the same as filter and all modifiers (suffixes) are the same, but returns a not condition.

Tip

Read more in queries documentation exclude

order_by

order_by(columns:Union[List, str]) -> QuerySet

With order_by() you can order the results from database based on your choice of fields.

Tip

Read more in queries documentation order_by

Joins and subqueries

select_related(related: Union[List, str]) -> QuerySet

Allows to prefetch related models during the same query.

With select_related always only one query is run against the database, meaning that one (sometimes complicated) join is generated and later nested models are processed in python.

Tip

Read more in queries documentation select_related

prefetch_related(related: Union[List, str]) -> QuerySet

Allows to prefetch related models during query - but opposite to select_related each subsequent model is fetched in a separate database query.

With prefetch_related always one query per Model is run against the database, meaning that you will have multiple queries executed one after another.

Tip

Read more in queries documentation prefetch_related

Pagination and rows number

paginate

paginate(page: int, page_size: int = 20) -> QuerySet

Combines the offset and limit methods based on page number and size.

Tip

Read more in queries documentation paginate

limit

limit(limit_count: int) -> QuerySet

You can limit the results to desired number of parent models.

Tip

Read more in queries documentation limit

offset

offset(offset: int) -> QuerySet

You can offset the results by desired number of main models.

Tip

Read more in queries documentation offset

Selecting subset of columns

fields

fields(columns: Union[List, str, set, dict]) -> QuerySet

With fields() you can select subset of model columns to limit the data load.

Tip

Read more in queries documentation fields

exclude_fields

exclude_fields(columns: Union[List, str, set, dict]) -> QuerySet

With exclude_fields() you can select subset of model columns that will be excluded to limit the data load.

Tip

Read more in queries documentation exclude_fields

Aggregated functions

count

count() -> int

Returns number of rows matching the given criteria (i.e. applied with filter and exclude)

Tip

Read more in queries documentation count

exists

exists() -> bool

Returns a bool value to confirm if there are rows matching the given criteria (applied with filter and exclude)

Tip

Read more in queries documentation exists