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ManyToMany

ManyToMany(to, through) has required parameters to and optional through that takes target and relation Model classes.

Sqlalchemy column and Type are automatically taken from target Model.

  • Sqlalchemy column: class of a target Model primary key column
  • Type (used for pydantic): type of a target Model

Defining Models

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from typing import Optional, Union, List

import databases
import ormar
import sqlalchemy

database = databases.Database("sqlite:///db.sqlite")
metadata = sqlalchemy.MetaData()


class Author(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        tablename = "authors"
        database = database
        metadata = metadata

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    first_name: str = ormar.String(max_length=80)
    last_name: str = ormar.String(max_length=80)


class Category(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        tablename = "categories"
        database = database
        metadata = metadata

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=40)


class Post(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        tablename = "posts"
        database = database
        metadata = metadata

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    title: str = ormar.String(max_length=200)
    categories: Optional[List[Category]] = ormar.ManyToMany(Category)
    author: Optional[Author] = ormar.ForeignKey(Author)

Create sample data:

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guido = await Author.objects.create(first_name="Guido", last_name="Van Rossum")
post = await Post.objects.create(title="Hello, M2M", author=guido)
news = await Category.objects.create(name="News")

Reverse relation

ForeignKey fields are automatically registering reverse side of the relation.

By default it's child (source) Model name + s, like courses in snippet below:

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class Category(ormar.Model):
    class Meta(BaseMeta):
        tablename = "categories"

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=40)


class Post(ormar.Model):
    class Meta(BaseMeta):
        pass

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    title: str = ormar.String(max_length=200)
    categories: Optional[List[Category]] = ormar.ManyToMany(Category)

# create some sample data
post = await Post.objects.create(title="Hello, M2M")
news = await Category.objects.create(name="News")
await post.categories.add(news)

# now you can query and access from both sides:
post_check = Post.objects.select_related("categories").get()
assert post_check.categories[0] == news

# query through auto registered reverse side
category_check = Category.objects.select_related("posts").get()
assert category_check.posts[0] == post

Reverse relation exposes API to manage related objects also from parent side.

By default, the related_name is generated in the same way as for the ForeignKey relation (class.name.lower()+'s'), but in the same way you can overwrite this name by providing related_name parameter like below:

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categories: Optional[Union[Category, List[Category]]] = ormar.ManyToMany(
        Category, through=PostCategory, related_name="new_categories"
    )

Warning

When you provide multiple relations to the same model ormar can no longer auto generate the related_name for you. Therefore, in that situation you have to provide related_name for all but one (one can be default and generated) or all related fields.

Skipping reverse relation

If you are sure you don't want the reverse relation you can use skip_reverse=True flag of the ManyToMany.

If you set skip_reverse flag internally the field is still registered on the other side of the relationship so you can: * filter by related models fields from reverse model * order_by by related models fields from reverse model

But you cannot: * access the related field from reverse model with related_name * even if you select_related from reverse side of the model the returned models won't be populated in reversed instance (the join is not prevented so you still can filter and order_by over the relation) * the relation won't be populated in dict() and json() * you cannot pass the nested related objects when populating from dictionary or json (also through fastapi). It will be either ignored or error will be raised depending on extra setting in pydantic Config.

Example:

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class Category(ormar.Model):
    class Meta(BaseMeta):
        tablename = "categories"

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=40)


class Post(ormar.Model):
    class Meta(BaseMeta):
        pass

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    title: str = ormar.String(max_length=200)
    categories: Optional[List[Category]] = ormar.ManyToMany(Category, skip_reverse=True)

# create some sample data
post = await Post.objects.create(title="Hello, M2M")
news = await Category.objects.create(name="News")
await post.categories.add(news)

assert post.categories[0] == news  # ok
assert news.posts  # Attribute error!

# but still can use in order_by
categories = (
    await Category.objects.select_related("posts").order_by("posts__title").all()
)
assert categories[0].first_name == "Test"

# note that posts are not populated for author even if explicitly
# included in select_related - note no posts in dict()
assert news.dict(exclude={"id"}) == {"name": "News"}

# still can filter through fields of related model
categories = await Category.objects.filter(posts__title="Hello, M2M").all()
assert categories[0].name == "News"
assert len(categories) == 1

Through Model

Optionally if you want to add additional fields you can explicitly create and pass the through model class.

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class BaseMeta(ormar.ModelMeta):
    database = database
    metadata = metadata


class Category(ormar.Model):
    class Meta(BaseMeta):
        tablename = "categories"

    id = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name = ormar.String(max_length=40)


class PostCategory(ormar.Model):
    class Meta(BaseMeta):
        tablename = "posts_x_categories"

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    sort_order: int = ormar.Integer(nullable=True)
    param_name: str = ormar.String(default="Name", max_length=200)


class Post(ormar.Model):
    class Meta(BaseMeta):
        pass

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    title: str = ormar.String(max_length=200)
    categories = ormar.ManyToMany(Category, through=PostCategory)

Warning

Note that even of you do not provide through model it's going to be created for you automatically and still has to be included in example in alembic migrations.

Tip

Note that you need to provide through model if you want to customize the Through model name or the database table name of this model.

If you do not provide the Through field it will be generated for you.

The default naming convention is:

  • for class name it's union of both classes name (parent+other) so in example above it would be PostCategory
  • for table name it similar but with underscore in between and s in the end of class lowercase name, in example above would be posts_categorys

Customizing Through relation names

By default Through model relation names default to related model name in lowercase.

So in example like this:

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... # course declaration omitted
class Student(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        database = database
        metadata = metadata

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100)
    courses = ormar.ManyToMany(Course)

# will produce default Through model like follows (example simplified)
class StudentCourse(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        database = database
        metadata = metadata
        tablename = "students_courses"

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    student = ormar.ForeignKey(Student) # default name
    course = ormar.ForeignKey(Course)  # default name

To customize the names of fields/relation in Through model now you can use new parameters to ManyToMany:

  • through_relation_name - name of the field leading to the model in which ManyToMany is declared
  • through_reverse_relation_name - name of the field leading to the model to which ManyToMany leads to

Example:

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... # course declaration ommited
class Student(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        database = database
        metadata = metadata

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100)
    courses = ormar.ManyToMany(Course,
                               through_relation_name="student_id",
                               through_reverse_relation_name="course_id")

# will produce Through model like follows (example simplified)
class StudentCourse(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        database = database
        metadata = metadata
        tablename = "students_courses"

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    student_id = ormar.ForeignKey(Student) # set by through_relation_name
    course_id = ormar.ForeignKey(Course)  # set by through_reverse_relation_name

Note

Note that explicitly declaring relations in Through model is forbidden, so even if you provide your own custom Through model you cannot change the names there and you need to use same through_relation_name and through_reverse_relation_name parameters.

Through Fields

The through field is auto added to the reverse side of the relation.

The exposed field is named as lowercase Through class name.

The exposed field explicitly has no relations loaded as the relation is already populated in ManyToMany field, so it's useful only when additional fields are provided on Through model.

In a sample model setup as following:

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class BaseMeta(ormar.ModelMeta):
    database = database
    metadata = metadata


class Category(ormar.Model):
    class Meta(BaseMeta):
        tablename = "categories"

    id = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name = ormar.String(max_length=40)


class PostCategory(ormar.Model):
    class Meta(BaseMeta):
        tablename = "posts_x_categories"

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    sort_order: int = ormar.Integer(nullable=True)
    param_name: str = ormar.String(default="Name", max_length=200)


class Post(ormar.Model):
    class Meta(BaseMeta):
        pass

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    title: str = ormar.String(max_length=200)
    categories = ormar.ManyToMany(Category, through=PostCategory)

the through field can be used as a normal model field in most of the QuerySet operations.

Note that through field is attached only to related side of the query so:

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post = await Post.objects.select_related("categories").get()
# source model has no through field
assert post.postcategory is None
# related models have through field
assert post.categories[0].postcategory is not None

# same is applicable for reversed query
category = await Category.objects.select_related("posts").get()
assert category.postcategory is None
assert category.posts[0].postcategory is not None

Through field can be used for filtering the data.

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post = (
        await Post.objects.select_related("categories")
        .filter(postcategory__sort_order__gt=1)
        .get()
        )

Tip

Note that despite that the actual instance is not populated on source model, in queries, order by statements etc you can access through model from both sides. So below query has exactly the same effect (note access through categories)

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post = (
    await Post.objects.select_related("categories")
    .filter(categories__postcategory__sort_order__gt=1)
    .get()
    )

Through model can be used in order by queries.

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post = (
        await Post.objects.select_related("categories")
        .order_by("-postcategory__sort_order")
        .get()
    )

You can also select subset of the columns in a normal QuerySet way with fields and exclude_fields.

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post2 = (
        await Post.objects.select_related("categories")
        .exclude_fields("postcategory__param_name")
        .get()
        )

Warning

Note that because through fields explicitly nullifies all relation fields, as relation is populated in ManyToMany field, you should not use the standard model methods like save() and update() before re-loading the field from database.

If you want to modify the through field in place remember to reload it from database. Otherwise you will set relations to None so effectively make the field useless!

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# always reload the field before modification
await post2.categories[0].postcategory.load()
# only then update the field
await post2.categories[0].postcategory.update(sort_order=3)
Note that reloading the model effectively reloads the relations as pk_only models (only primary key is set) so they are not fully populated, but it's enough to preserve the relation on update.

Warning

If you use i.e. fastapi the partially loaded related models on through field might cause pydantic validation errors (that's the primary reason why they are not populated by default). So either you need to exclude the related fields in your response, or fully load the related models. In example above it would mean:

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await post2.categories[0].postcategory.post.load()
await post2.categories[0].postcategory.category.load()
Alternatively you can use load_all():
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await post2.categories[0].postcategory.load_all()

Preferred way of update is through queryset proxy update() method

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# filter the desired related model with through field and update only through field params
await post2.categories.filter(name='Test category').update(postcategory={"sort_order": 3})

Relation methods

add

add(item: Model, **kwargs)

Allows you to add model to ManyToMany relation.

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# Add a category to a post.
await post.categories.add(news)
# or from the other end:
await news.posts.add(post)

Warning

In all not None cases the primary key value for related model has to exist in database.

Otherwise an IntegrityError will be raised by your database driver library.

If you declare your models with a Through model with additional fields, you can populate them during adding child model to relation.

In order to do so, pass keyword arguments with field names and values to add() call.

Note that this works only for ManyToMany relations.

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post = await Post(title="Test post").save()
category = await Category(name="Test category").save()
# apart from model pass arguments referencing through model fields
await post.categories.add(category, sort_order=1, param_name='test')

remove

Removal of the related model one by one.

Removes also the relation in the database.

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await news.posts.remove(post)

clear

Removal of all related models in one call.

Removes also the relation in the database.

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await news.posts.clear()

QuerysetProxy

Reverse relation exposes QuerysetProxy API that allows you to query related model like you would issue a normal Query.

To read which methods of QuerySet are available read below querysetproxy