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Read data from database

Following methods allow you to load data from the database.

  • get(*args, **kwargs) -> Model
  • get_or_create(*args, **kwargs) -> Model
  • first(*args, **kwargs) -> Model
  • all(*args, **kwargs) -> List[Optional[Model]]

  • Model

    • Model.load() method
  • QuerysetProxy

    • QuerysetProxy.get(*args, **kwargs) method
    • QuerysetProxy.get_or_create(*args, **kwargs) method
    • QuerysetProxy.first(*args, **kwargs) method
    • QuerysetProxy.all(*args, **kwargs) method

get

get(*args, **kwargs) -> Model

Get's the first row from the db meeting the criteria set by kwargs.

If no criteria set it will return the last row in db sorted by pk column.

Passing a criteria is actually calling filter(args, *kwargs) method described below.

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class Track(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        tablename = "track"
        metadata = metadata
        database = database

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    album: Optional[Album] = ormar.ForeignKey(Album)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100)
    position: int = ormar.Integer()
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track = await Track.objects.get(name='The Bird')
# note that above is equivalent to await Track.objects.filter(name='The Bird').get()
track2 = track = await Track.objects.get()
track == track2
# True since it's the only row in db in our example
# and get without arguments return first row by pk column desc 

Warning

If no row meets the criteria NoMatch exception is raised.

If there are multiple rows meeting the criteria the MultipleMatches exception is raised.

get_or_none

get_or_none(*args, **kwargs) -> Model

Exact equivalent of get described above but instead of raising the exception returns None if no db record matching the criteria is found.

get_or_create

get_or_create(*args, **kwargs) -> Model

Combination of create and get methods.

Tries to get a row meeting the criteria and if NoMatch exception is raised it creates a new one with given kwargs.

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class Album(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        tablename = "album"
        metadata = metadata
        database = database

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100)
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album = await Album.objects.get_or_create(name='The Cat')
# object is created as it does not exist
album2 = await Album.objects.get_or_create(name='The Cat')
assert album == album2
# return True as the same db row is returned

Warning

Despite being an equivalent row from database the album and album2 in example above are 2 different python objects! Updating one of them will not refresh the second one until you excplicitly load() the fresh data from db.

Note

Note that if you want to create a new object you either have to pass pk column value or pk column has to be set as autoincrement

first

first(*args, **kwargs) -> Model

Gets the first row from the db ordered by primary key column ascending.

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class Album(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        tablename = "album"
        metadata = metadata
        database = database

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100)
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await Album.objects.create(name='The Cat')
await Album.objects.create(name='The Dog')
album = await Album.objects.first()
# first row by primary_key column asc
assert album.name == 'The Cat'

all

all(*args, **kwargs) -> List[Optional["Model"]]

Returns all rows from a database for given model for set filter options.

Passing kwargs is a shortcut and equals to calling filter(*args, **kwargs).all().

If there are no rows meeting the criteria an empty list is returned.

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class Album(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        tablename = "album"
        metadata = metadata
        database = database

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100)


class Track(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        tablename = "track"
        metadata = metadata
        database = database

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    album: Optional[Album] = ormar.ForeignKey(Album)
    title: str = ormar.String(max_length=100)
    position: int = ormar.Integer()
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tracks = await Track.objects.select_related("album").all(album__title='Sample')
# will return a list of all Tracks for album Sample
# for more on joins visit joining and subqueries section

tracks = await Track.objects.all()
# will return a list of all Tracks in database

Model methods

Each model instance have a set of methods to save, update or load itself.

load

You can load the ForeignKey related model by calling load() method.

load() can be used to refresh the model from the database (if it was changed by some other process).

Tip

Read more about load() method in models methods

QuerysetProxy methods

When access directly the related ManyToMany field as well as ReverseForeignKey returns the list of related models.

But at the same time it exposes subset of QuerySet API, so you can filter, create, select related etc related models directly from parent model.

get

Works exactly the same as get function above but allows you to fetch related objects from other side of the relation.

Tip

To read more about QuerysetProxy visit querysetproxy section

get_or_none

Exact equivalent of get described above but instead of raising the exception returns None if no db record matching the criteria is found.

Tip

To read more about QuerysetProxy visit querysetproxy section

get_or_create

Works exactly the same as get_or_create function above but allows you to query or create related objects from other side of the relation.

Tip

To read more about QuerysetProxy visit querysetproxy section

first

Works exactly the same as first function above but allows you to query related objects from other side of the relation.

Tip

To read more about QuerysetProxy visit querysetproxy section

all

Works exactly the same as all function above but allows you to query related objects from other side of the relation.

Tip

To read more about QuerysetProxy visit querysetproxy section