Skip to content

Model methods

Tip

Main interaction with the databases is exposed through a QuerySet object exposed on each model as Model.objects similar to the django orm.

To read more about quering, joining tables, excluding fields etc. visit queries section.

Each model instance have a set of methods to save, update or load itself.

Available methods are described below.

pydantic methods

Note that each ormar.Model is also a pydantic.BaseModel, so all pydantic methods are also available on a model, especially dict() and json() methods that can also accept exclude, include and other parameters.

To read more check pydantic documentation

construct

construct is a raw equivalent of __init__ method used for construction of new instances.

The difference is that construct skips validations, so it should be used when you know that data is correct and can be trusted. The benefit of using construct is the speed of execution due to skipped validation.

Note

Note that in contrast to pydantic.construct method - the ormar equivalent will also process the nested related models.

Warning

Bear in mind that due to skipped validation the construct method does not perform any conversions, checks etc. So it's your responsibility to provide tha data that is valid and can be consumed by the database.

The only two things that construct still performs are:

  • Providing a default value for not set fields
  • Initialize nested ormar models if you pass a dictionary or a primary key value

dict

dict is a method inherited from pydantic, yet ormar adds its own parameters and has some nuances when working with default values, therefore it's listed here for clarity.

dict as the name suggests export data from model tree to dictionary.

Explanation of dict parameters:

include (ormar modifed)

include: Union[Set, Dict] = None

Set or dictionary of field names to include in returned dictionary.

Note that pydantic has an uncommon pattern of including/ excluding fields in lists (so also nested models) by an index. And if you want to exclude the field in all children you need to pass a __all__ key to dictionary.

You cannot exclude nested models in Sets in pydantic but you can in ormar (by adding double underscore on relation name i.e. to exclude name of category for a book you cen use exclude={"book__category__name"})

ormar does not support by index exclusion/ inclusions and accepts a simplified and more user-friendly notation.

To check how you can include/exclude fields, including nested fields check out fields section that has an explanation and a lot of samples.

Note

The fact that in ormar you can exclude nested models in sets, you can exclude from a whole model tree in response_model_exclude and response_model_include in fastapi!

exclude (ormar modified)

exclude: Union[Set, Dict] = None

Set or dictionary of field names to exclude in returned dictionary.

Note that pydantic has an uncommon pattern of including/ excluding fields in lists (so also nested models) by an index. And if you want to exclude the field in all children you need to pass a __all__ key to dictionary.

You cannot exclude nested models in Sets in pydantic but you can in ormar (by adding double underscore on relation name i.e. to exclude name of category for a book you cen use exclude={"book__category__name"})

ormar does not support by index exclusion/ inclusions and accepts a simplified and more user-friendly notation.

To check how you can include/exclude fields, including nested fields check out fields section that has an explanation and a lot of samples.

Note

The fact that in ormar you can exclude nested models in sets, you can exclude from a whole model tree in response_model_exclude and response_model_include in fastapi!

exclude_unset

exclude_unset: bool = False

Flag indicates whether fields which were not explicitly set when creating the model should be excluded from the returned dictionary.

Warning

Note that after you save data into database each field has its own value -> either provided by you, default, or None.

That means that when you load the data from database, all fields are set, and this flag basically stop working!

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
class Category(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        tablename = "categories"
        metadata = metadata
        database = database

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100, default="Test")
    visibility: bool = ormar.Boolean(default=True)


class Item(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        tablename = "items"
        metadata = metadata
        database = database

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100)
    price: float = ormar.Float(default=9.99)
    categories: List[Category] = ormar.ManyToMany(Category)

category = Category(name="Test 2")
assert category.dict() == {'id': None, 'items': [], 'name': 'Test 2',
                           'visibility': True}
assert category.dict(exclude_unset=True) == {'items': [], 'name': 'Test 2'}

await category.save()
category2 = await Category.objects.get()
assert category2.dict() == {'id': 1, 'items': [], 'name': 'Test 2',
                            'visibility': True}
# NOTE how after loading from db all fields are set explicitly
# as this is what happens when you populate a model from db
assert category2.dict(exclude_unset=True) == {'id': 1, 'items': [],
                                              'name': 'Test 2', 'visibility': True}

exclude_defaults

exclude_defaults: bool = False

Flag indicates are equal to their default values (whether set or otherwise) should be excluded from the returned dictionary

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
class Category(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        tablename = "categories"
        metadata = metadata
        database = database

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100, default="Test")
    visibility: bool = ormar.Boolean(default=True)

class Item(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        tablename = "items"
        metadata = metadata
        database = database

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100)
    price: float = ormar.Float(default=9.99)
    categories: List[Category] = ormar.ManyToMany(Category)

category = Category()
# note that Integer pk is by default autoincrement so optional
assert category.dict() == {'id': None, 'items': [], 'name': 'Test', 'visibility': True}
assert category.dict(exclude_defaults=True) == {'items': []}

# save and reload the data
await category.save()
category2 = await Category.objects.get()

assert category2.dict() == {'id': 1, 'items': [], 'name': 'Test', 'visibility': True}
assert category2.dict(exclude_defaults=True) == {'id': 1, 'items': []}

exclude_none

exclude_none: bool = False

Flag indicates whether fields which are equal to None should be excluded from the returned dictionary.

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
class Category(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        tablename = "categories"
        metadata = metadata
        database = database

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100, default="Test", nullable=True)
    visibility: bool = ormar.Boolean(default=True)


class Item(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        tablename = "items"
        metadata = metadata
        database = database

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100)
    price: float = ormar.Float(default=9.99)
    categories: List[Category] = ormar.ManyToMany(Category)


category = Category(name=None)
assert category.dict() == {'id': None, 'items': [], 'name': None,
                           'visibility': True}
# note the id is not set yet so None and excluded
assert category.dict(exclude_none=True) == {'items': [], 'visibility': True}

await category.save()
category2 = await Category.objects.get()
assert category2.dict() == {'id': 1, 'items': [], 'name': None,
                            'visibility': True}
assert category2.dict(exclude_none=True) == {'id': 1, 'items': [],
                                             'visibility': True}

exclude_primary_keys (ormar only)

exclude_primary_keys: bool = False

Setting flag to True will exclude all primary key columns in a tree, including nested models.

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
class Item(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        tablename = "items"
        metadata = metadata
        database = database

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100)

item1 = Item(id=1, name="Test Item")
assert item1.dict() == {"id": 1, "name": "Test Item"}
assert item1.dict(exclude_primary_keys=True) == {"name": "Test Item"}

exclude_through_models (ormar only)

exclude_through_models: bool = False

Through models are auto added for every ManyToMany relation, and they hold additional parameters on linking model/table.

Setting the exclude_through_models=True will exclude all through models, including Through models of submodels.

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
class Category(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        tablename = "categories"
        metadata = metadata
        database = database

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100)


class Item(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        tablename = "items"
        metadata = metadata
        database = database

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100)
    categories: List[Category] = ormar.ManyToMany(Category)

# tree defining the models
item_dict = {
            "name": "test",
            "categories": [{"name": "test cat"}, {"name": "test cat2"}],
        }
# save whole tree
await Item(**item_dict).save_related(follow=True, save_all=True)

# get the saved values
item = await Item.objects.select_related("categories").get()

# by default you can see the through models (itemcategory)
assert item.dict() == {'id': 1, 'name': 'test', 
                       'categories': [
                           {'id': 1, 'name': 'test cat', 
                            'itemcategory': {'id': 1, 'category': None, 'item': None}}, 
                           {'id': 2, 'name': 'test cat2', 
                            'itemcategory': {'id': 2, 'category': None, 'item': None}}
                       ]}

# you can exclude those fields/ models
assert item.dict(exclude_through_models=True) == {
                       'id': 1, 'name': 'test', 
                       'categories': [
                           {'id': 1, 'name': 'test cat'}, 
                           {'id': 2, 'name': 'test cat2'}
                       ]}

json

json() has exactly the same parameters as dict() so check above.

Of course the end result is a string with json representation and not a dictionary.

get_pydantic

get_pydantic(include: Union[Set, Dict] = None, exclude: Union[Set, Dict] = None)

This method allows you to generate pydantic models from your ormar models without you needing to retype all the fields.

Note that if you have nested models, it will generate whole tree of pydantic models for you!

Moreover, you can pass exclude and/or include parameters to keep only the fields that you want to, including in nested models.

That means that this way you can effortlessly create pydantic models for requests and responses in fastapi.

Note

To read more about possible excludes/includes and how to structure your exclude dictionary or set visit fields section of documentation

Given sample ormar models like follows:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
metadata = sqlalchemy.MetaData()
database = databases.Database(DATABASE_URL, force_rollback=True)


class BaseMeta(ormar.ModelMeta):
    metadata = metadata
    database = database

class Category(ormar.Model):
    class Meta(BaseMeta):
        tablename = "categories"

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100)


class Item(ormar.Model):
    class Meta(BaseMeta):
        pass

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100, default="test")
    category: Optional[Category] = ormar.ForeignKey(Category, nullable=True)

You can generate pydantic models out of it with a one simple call.

1
PydanticCategory = Category.get_pydantic(include={"id", "name"}

Which will generate model equivalent of:

1
2
3
class Category(BaseModel):
    id: Optional[int]
    name: Optional[str] = "test"

Warning

Note that it's not a good practice to have several classes with same name in one module, as well as it would break fastapi docs. Thats's why ormar adds random 3 uppercase letters to the class name. In example above it means that in reality class would be named i.e. Category_XIP(BaseModel).

To exclude or include nested fields you can use dict or double underscores.

1
2
3
# both calls are equivalent
PydanticCategory = Category.get_pydantic(include={"id", "items__id"})
PydanticCategory = Category.get_pydantic(include={"id": ..., "items": {"id"}})

and results in a generated structure as follows:

1
2
3
4
5
6
class Item(BaseModel):
    id: Optional[int]

class Category(BaseModel):
    id: Optional[int]
    items: Optional[List[Item]]

Of course, you can use also deeply nested structures and ormar will generate it pydantic equivalent you (in a way that exclude loops).

Note how Item model above does not have a reference to Category although in ormar the relation is bidirectional (and ormar.Item has categories field).

Warning

Note that the generated pydantic model will inherit all field validators from the original ormar model, that includes the ormar choices validator as well as validators defined with pydantic.validator decorator.

But, at the same time all root validators present on ormar models will NOT be copied to the generated pydantic model. Since root validator can operate on all fields and a user can exclude some fields during generation of pydantic model it's not safe to copy those validators. If required, you need to redefine/ manually copy them to generated pydantic model.

load

By default when you query a table without prefetching related models, the ormar will still construct your related models, but populate them only with the pk value. You can load the related model by calling load() method.

load() can also be used to refresh the model from the database (if it was changed by some other process).

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
track = await Track.objects.get(name='The Bird')
track.album.pk # will return malibu album pk (1)
track.album.name # will return None

# you need to actually load the data first
await track.album.load()
track.album.name # will return 'Malibu'

load_all

load_all(follow: bool = False, exclude: Union[List, str, Set, Dict] = None) -> Model

Method works like load() but also goes through all relations of the Model on which the method is called, and reloads them from database.

By default the load_all method loads only models that are directly related (one step away) to the model on which the method is called.

But you can specify the follow=True parameter to traverse through nested models and load all of them in the relation tree.

Warning

To avoid circular updates with follow=True set, load_all keeps a set of already visited Models, and won't perform nested loads on Models that were already visited.

So if you have a diamond or circular relations types you need to perform the loads in a manual way.

1
2
# in example like this the second Street (coming from City) won't be load_all, so ZipCode won't be reloaded
Street -> District -> City -> Street -> ZipCode

Method accepts also optional exclude parameter that works exactly the same as exclude_fields method in QuerySet. That way you can remove fields from related models being refreshed or skip whole related models.

Method performs one database query so it's more efficient than nested calls to load() and all() on related models.

Tip

To read more about exclude read exclude_fields

Warning

All relations are cleared on load_all(), so if you exclude some nested models they will be empty after call.

save

save() -> self

You can create new models by using QuerySet.create() method or by initializing your model as a normal pydantic model and later calling save() method.

save() can also be used to persist changes that you made to the model, but only if the primary key is not set or the model does not exist in database.

The save() method does not check if the model exists in db, so if it does you will get a integrity error from your selected db backend if trying to save model with already existing primary key.

1
2
3
4
5
track = Track(name='The Bird')
await track.save() # will persist the model in database

track = await Track.objects.get(name='The Bird')
await track.save() # will raise integrity error as pk is populated

update

update(_columns: List[str] = None, **kwargs) -> self

You can update models by using QuerySet.update() method or by updating your model attributes (fields) and calling update() method.

If you try to update a model without a primary key set a ModelPersistenceError exception will be thrown.

To persist a newly created model use save() or upsert(**kwargs) methods.

1
2
track = await Track.objects.get(name='The Bird')
await track.update(name='The Bird Strikes Again')

To update only selected columns from model into the database provide a list of columns that should be updated to _columns argument.

In example:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
class Movie(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        tablename = "movies"
        metadata = metadata
        database = database

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100, nullable=False, name="title")
    year: int = ormar.Integer()
    profit: float = ormar.Float()

terminator = await Movie(name='Terminator', year=1984, profit=0.078).save()

terminator.name = "Terminator 2"
terminator.year = 1991
terminator.profit = 0.520

# update only name
await terminator.update(_columns=["name"])

# note that terminator instance was not reloaded so
assert terminator.year == 1991

# but once you load the data from db you see it was not updated
await terminator.load()
assert terminator.year == 1984

Warning

Note that update() does not refresh the instance of the Model, so if you change more columns than you pass in _columns list your Model instance will have different values than the database!

upsert

upsert(**kwargs) -> self

It's a proxy to either save() or update(**kwargs) methods described above.

If the primary key is set -> the update method will be called.

If the pk is not set the save() method will be called.

1
2
3
4
5
track = Track(name='The Bird')
await track.upsert() # will call save as the pk is empty

track = await Track.objects.get(name='The Bird')
await track.upsert(name='The Bird Strikes Again') # will call update as pk is already populated

delete

You can delete models by using QuerySet.delete() method or by using your model and calling delete() method.

1
2
track = await Track.objects.get(name='The Bird')
await track.delete() # will delete the model from database

Tip

Note that that track object stays the same, only record in the database is removed.

save_related(follow: bool = False, save_all: bool = False, exclude=Optional[Union[Set, Dict]]) -> None

Method goes through all relations of the Model on which the method is called, and calls upsert() method on each model that is not saved.

To understand when a model is saved check save status section above.

By default the save_related method saved only models that are directly related (one step away) to the model on which the method is called.

But you can specify the follow=True parameter to traverse through nested models and save all of them in the relation tree.

By default save_related saves only model that has not saved status, meaning that they were modified in current scope.

If you want to force saving all of the related methods use save_all=True flag, which will upsert all related models, regardless of their save status.

If you want to skip saving some of the relations you can pass exclude parameter.

Exclude can be a set of own model relations, or it can be a dictionary that can also contain nested items.

Note

Note that exclude parameter in save_related accepts only relation fields names, so if you pass any other fields they will be saved anyway

Note

To read more about the structure of possible values passed to exclude check Queryset.fields method documentation.

Warning

To avoid circular updates with follow=True set, save_related keeps a set of already visited Models on each branch of relation tree, and won't perform nested save_related on Models that were already visited.

So if you have circular relations types you need to perform the updates in a manual way.

Note that with save_all=True and follow=True you can use save_related() to save whole relation tree at once.

Example:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
class Department(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        database = database
        metadata = metadata

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    department_name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100)


class Course(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        database = database
        metadata = metadata

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    course_name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100)
    completed: bool = ormar.Boolean()
    department: Optional[Department] = ormar.ForeignKey(Department)


class Student(ormar.Model):
    class Meta:
        database = database
        metadata = metadata

    id: int = ormar.Integer(primary_key=True)
    name: str = ormar.String(max_length=100)
    courses = ormar.ManyToMany(Course)

to_save = {
            "department_name": "Ormar",
            "courses": [
                {"course_name": "basic1",
                 "completed": True,
                 "students": [
                     {"name": "Jack"},
                     {"name": "Abi"}
                 ]},
                {"course_name": "basic2",
                 "completed": True,
                 "students": [
                     {"name": "Kate"},
                     {"name": "Miranda"}
                 ]
                 },
            ],
        }
# initializa whole tree
department = Department(**to_save)

# save all at once (one after another)
await department.save_related(follow=True, save_all=True)

department_check = await Department.objects.select_all(follow=True).get()

to_exclude = {
    "id": ...,
    "courses": {
        "id": ...,
        "students": {"id", "studentcourse"}
    }
}
# after excluding ids and through models you get exact same payload used to
# construct whole tree
assert department_check.dict(exclude=to_exclude) == to_save

Warning

save_related() iterates all relations and all models and upserts() them one by one, so it will save all models but might not be optimal in regard of number of database queries.